How to Deploy a NodeJS App to Kubernetes

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If you’re one of the few who haven’t yet tried out container orchestration, you might be new to the Kubernetes architecture.

“Kubernetes is a portable, extensible open-source platform for managing containerized workloads and services, that facilitates both declarative configuration and automation.”

Kubernetes, also popularly known as k8s can be thought of as:

  1. a container platform

  2. a microservices platform

  3. a portable cloud platform and a lot more.

Simply put, k8s provide users with a platform for executing applications and managing them at scale, either across multiple physical or virtual machines.The design of Kubernetes is greatly influenced by Borg, the large-scale cluster management system deployed by Google.

In this article, we’ll go through the steps to setup and deploy a Nodejs application using Kubernetes.

Kubernetes Architecture

Containers allow applications to be broken into smaller microservices that are easy to manage. If you’re containerizing a node application with a simple architecture, your requirements might be met by Docker’s orchestration tooling. However, for more complex structures, you will need to use Kubernetes to manage your clusters.

The master-child architecture of Kubernetes allows it to scale horizontally. Below are the various components of Kubernetes.

Pod: The smallest deployable unit created and managed by Kubernetes, a Pod is a group of one or more containers. Containers within a Pod share an IP address and can access each other via localhost as well as enjoy shared access to volumes.

Node: A worker machine in Kubernetes. May be a VM or a physical machine, and comes with services necessary to run Pods.

Service: An abstraction which defines a logical set of Pods and a policy for accessing them. Assigns a fixed IP address to Pod replicas, allowing other Pods or Services to communicate with them.

ReplicaSet:Ensures that a specified number of Pod replicas are running at any given time. K8s recommend using Deployments instead of directly manipulating ReplicaSet objects, unless you require custom update orchestration or don’t require updates at all.

Deployment: A controller that provides declarative updates for Pods and ReplicaSets.

Namespace: Virtual cluster backed by the same physical cluster. A way to divide cluster resources between multiple users, and a mechanism to attach authorization and policy to a subsection of a given cluster.

If you’re new to the concept of containerizing and running containers on cloud, you might want to read more about the usual cloud migration challenges and how containers solve those challenges.

Installing minikube and kubectl

To make matters simpler, for the duration of this guide we will use minikube on local machines and run one single-node Kubernetes cluster. Minikube is a useful tool that can start a virtual machine and is able to bootstrap a cluster.

Before we begin, you would need to download and install VirtualBox in case you do not already have it. Though minikube works with similar virtualization platforms, VirtualBox has proven to be the most reliable.

At the next stage, we need to install kubectl. This will be helpful when interacting with the k8s cluster. You can install kubectl using the script below –

#!/bin/bashARCH=$(uname | awk ‘{print tolower($0)}’)TARGET_VERSION=”v0.15.0″MINIKUBE_URL=”https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/releases/${TARGET_VERSION}/minikube-${ARCH}-amd64″KUBECTL_VER=”v1.5.1″KUBECTL_URL=”https://storage.googleapis.com/kubernetes-release/release/${KUBECTL_VER}/bin/${ARCH}/amd64/kubectl”echo “installing latest kubectl…”curl -Lo kubectl $KUBECTL_URL && chmod +x kubectl && sudo mv kubectl /usr/local/bin/echo “installing latest minikube…”curl -Lo minikube $MINIKUBE_URL && chmod +x minikube && sudo mv minikube /usr/local/bin/ISO_URL=”https://storage.googleapis.com/minikube/iso/minikube-v1.0.1.iso”minikube start ???–vm-driver=virtualbox ???–iso-url=$ISO_URLecho “starting minikube dashboard…”minikube dashboard

If this has been successful, you should the Kubernetes dashboard in your browser, similar to –

Using kubectl

When minikune is launched, it should automatically establish the context for kubectl. When you execute ‘kubectl get nodes’, you should see the following –

kubectl get nodesNAME ??????STATUS AGEminikube ??Ready 2m

Similarly, when you execute ‘kubectl get pods –all-namespaces’, you should see the following -:

kubectl get pods –all-namespacesNAMESPACE ????NAME ???????????????READY STATUS RESTARTS AGEkube-system ??kube-addon-manager-minikube ??1/1 ??????Running ??0 ?????????3mkube-system ??kube-dns-v20-qkzgg ???????????3/3 ??????Running ??0 ?????????3mkube-system ??kubernetes-dashboard-1hs02 ???1/1 ??????Running ??0 ?????????3m

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Even though a dashboard like this is quite useful when attempting to visualize deployments and pods, we will be mainly using kubectl to interact with the cluster.

The Demo NodeJS App

We’ll be using a NodeJS server known as demo-server as an example in this guide. demo-server was so named for its sheer simplicity. You can find demo-server at github. Within the repository, you will find a server that looks similar to:

var http = require(‘http’); var server = http.createServer(function(req, res){ ???res.end(new Date().toISOString());}); server.listen(8000);You will also find a Dockerfile similar to – FROM quay.io/seanmcgary/nodejs-raw-baseMAINTAINER Sean McGary <sean@seanmcgary.com> EXPOSE 8000 ADD start.sh start.sh RUN chmod +x start.sh CMD ./start.sh

Per its default settings, the Dockerfile will clone the repo as well as run the server when executed. You can edit the Dockerfile to include the repo that you have cloned to the container earlier instead of having to recall it every time.

Build the Container

To build the container, you would need to execute:

CONTAINER_NAME=”<container name>”docker build -t $CONTAINER_NAME:latest .docker push $CONTAINER_NAME:latest

A point to note – Because k8s is running on a virtual machine of its own, it will not have access to any of the Docker images that you may build. For proceeding with this guide, you will be required to push your images to a repository that is accessible by k8s.

While Dockerhub is a free resource, we suggest that you use Google’s Container Registry. This is a very low cost and also lends support to private images. You can find the GCR getting started guide here.

Creating a Deployment

For the deployment of our app, we will be using the ‘Deployment’ pod type. A deployment wraps the functions and features of ReplicaSets and Pods and allows users to declaratively update their application(s). This, in turn, allows users to take advantage of zero-downtime deploys using Kubernetes’ RollingUpdate functionality.

To deploy our app, we’re going to use the “Deployment” pod type. A deployment wraps the functionality of Pods and ReplicaSets to allow you to declaratively update your application. This is the magic that allows you to leverage zero-downtime deploys via Kubernetes’ RollingUpdate functionality.

deployment.yamlapiVersion:extensions/v1beta1kind:Deploymentmetadata: ?name:demo-server-deploymentspec: ?replicas:1 ?template: ???metadata: ?????labels: ???????app:demo-server ???spec: ?????containers: ?????- name:demo-server ???????image:<container image> ???????imagePullPolicy:Always ???????ports: ???????- containerPort:8000# vim:set ts=2 expandtab!:

?

In order to deploy your deployment, execute:

kubectl create -f deployment.yaml

?

To get your deployment with kubectl, execute:

kubectl get deploymentsNAME ??????????????????????DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE ??AVAILABLE AGEdemo-server-deployment ??1 ????????1 ????????1 ???????????1 ??????????7m

This metadata should update when your deployment is created and pulls down containers.

Creating a Service

Once the application has been successfully deployed, we need to figure out a method of exposing it to traffic that is external from the cluster. To this end, we will be creating a Service. We will need to open a NodePort connecting directly to our application via port 3061.

service.yamlapiVersion:v1kind:Servicemetadata: ?name:demo-server ?labels: ???app:demo-serverspec: ?selector: ???app:demo-server ?ports: ?- port:8000 ???protocol:TCP ???nodePort:30061 ?type:LoadBalancer

Now the service can be created within Kubernetes –

kubectl create -f service.yaml

The details can be accessed by executing –

kubectl get servicesNAME ???????????CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP ??PORT(S) AGEkubernetes ?????10.0.0.1 ????<none> ???????443/TCP ?????????1hdemo-server ??10.0.0.121 ??<pending> ????8000:30061/TCP ??12m

The ReplicaSet for our deployment should now look something like this:

Accessing the Server

We had earlier defined a NodePort in the Service. This exposes a port to the relevant IP address where minikube is running at the time. This allows your app to be accessible outside the cluster.

Per its default settings, minikube is bound to port 192.168.99.100. If you want to verify this, you can execute minikube ip which should return the current IP address in use.

To access your service, you only need to curl the IP on port 30061:

curl http://192.168.99.100:300612017-01-17T16:10:55.153Z

If each step of the guide was followed successfully, your application should now return a timestamp.

Conclusion

This guide was created only an extremely quick overview of the steps needed to get a NodeJS application running on Kubernetes with the bare minimum of configuration possible.

 

No doubt, Kubernetes is an extremely powerful computing platform and a number of features that we have not even touched upon today. The guides that follow will touch upon these aspects and how best to have Kubernetes working for you.

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